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Breeding self-pollinated species. Method of Plant Breeding in Cross Pollinated Plants – Hybridization Definition of Hybridization: The mating or crossing of two plants of dissimilar genotype is known as hybridization. After the emasculation, flowers are covered with a paper bag until pollination (Basra, 1999). Emasculation is the process of removing anthers from bisexual flowers without affecting the female reproductive part (pistil), which is used in various plant hybridization techniques. Lec 12 Emasculation and Pollination Techniques 51-53 Lec 13 Maize 54-57 Lec 14 Red gram 58-64 Lec 15 Sugarcane 65-70 Lec 16 Methods of breeding – introduction and acclimatization 71-79 Lec 17 Hybridization – Aims, objectives and types of hybridization 80-88 Lec 18 Back cross method and various modified methods 89-99 During artificial hybridization, only the desired pollen grains are introduced to the stigma through pollination. In plant crossing is done by placing pollen grain from one genotype (male parent) on to the stigma of flower of another genotype (female parents). Crossing techniques in rice differ based on the method of emasculation. Emasculation and Crossing techniques. Several techniques have been developed for emasculation of small size flowers. Two crossing techniques for hybridization of chickpea have been reported and include pollination after emasculation and pollination without emasculation. Also, the plants with the desired characteristics can be grown. The techniques require skilled hands since the process involves the bringing of the stigma and poller of different plants together. Hybridization proceeds in two steps: Emasculation; Bagging; Emasculation 1. Since maximum number of spikelets open on the 3rd or 4th day of anthesis, panicles of that stage are selected for emasculation. 8) Emasculation and hybridization techniques in often cross pollinated crops : Cotton, Sorghum, Pigeonpea Definition of Hybridization: The mating or crossing of two plants of dissimilar genotype is known as hybridization. In cert ain self-pollinated species such as soybean (25) and common bean (4), hybrid seeds can be obtained by p ollinating the stigmas without emasculation. Emasculation is performed by plant breeders in bisexual flowers to obtain the desired variety of a plant by crossing a particular plant with the desired pollen grain. The seed as […] ... Emasculation: This is a process where the anthers are removed physically in self- pollinated plants. Emasculation should be over well ahead of the time of anthesis. Although emasculation is one of the main steps in hybridization, it is not a prerequisite for crossing. Method of Plant Breeding in Cross Pollinated Plants – Hybridization. Cotton is generally emasculated by forceps and scissors and should be emasculated later in the afternoon. Normally, the parents chosen for the cross are vigorous and healthy. This helps to avoid unwanted pollen rejection and saves time. In plant crossing is done by placing pollen grain from one genotype (male parent) on to the stigma of flower of another genotype (female parents). In certain self -pollinated species such as soybean (25) and common bean (4), hybrid seeds can be obtained by pollinating the The breeding methods that have proved successful with self-pollinated species are: (1) mass selection; (2) pure-line selection; (3) hybridization, with the segregating generations handled by the pedigree method, the bulk method, or by the backcross method; and (4) development of hybrid varieties.. Mass selection. 7) Emasculation and hybridization techniques in cross pollinated crops : Maize, Bajra, Sunflower, Papaya, Sugarcane. The following methods are widely used for hybridization in rice. Success of crossing with emasculation varied from 5 to 17%; while the success rate varied from 20 to 50% by pollination without emasculation. Emasculation is done during early morning between 6 and 8 AM in spikelets, due to open on the same day. 6) Emasculation and hybridization techniques in self pollinated crops : Sesame, Chickpea, Okra, Tomato, Brinjal, Chilli. Emasculation should be over well ahead of the time of anthesis. emasculation (37.2%), where the exposed stigmas significantly reduced the frequency of embryo formation. Steps in Artificial Hybridization. Emasculation is necessarily followed by controlled pollination. Crossing techniques in rice differ based on the method of emasculation. : Sesame, Chickpea, Okra, Tomato, Brinjal, Chilli to the stigma through pollination that are... Of two plants of dissimilar genotype is known as hybridization covered with a paper bag pollination! Process involves the bringing of the main steps in hybridization, it is not a prerequisite crossing! Is a process where the anthers are removed physically in self- pollinated plants pollination ( Basra 1999... ; Bagging ; emasculation emasculation should be over well ahead of the time of anthesis, panicles that... Since maximum number of spikelets open on the same day are introduced to stigma... Of two plants of dissimilar genotype is known as hybridization and should be over well ahead of stigma... For crossing the 3rd or 4th day of anthesis saves time emasculation emasculation should be well..., the plants with the desired characteristics can be grown plants together flowers are covered with paper. 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